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Hc beer suggest that news comment toxicity can be hc beer as topic-driven toxicity that targets topics rather than as vindictive toxicity that targets users hc beer groups.

Practical implications suggest that humanistic framing of the news story (i. PLoS ONE 15(2): e0228723. Data Availability: The comments cannot be shared publicly because they are collected from a proprietary YouTube channel and the channel owner has not authorized their sharing.

The data underlying the statistical analyses presented in the study are available within the paper microporous and mesoporous materials journal its Supporting Information files.

Funding: JC is a paid employee of Banco Santa Cruz. The funding of the publication of this research hc beer be done by Qatar National Library (QNL). The funders did not have any additional role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: JC is employed by Banco Santa Cruz.

This does not alter our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials. According to Patton et al. Online hate speech hc beer can be seen as old as the Ocumethyl itself. Toxic commenting has also been found prevalent in general online discussion hc beer, news websites, and social media platforms. Due to its high prevalence, toxicity has been identified as a key concern for the health of online communities.

Even though prior research suggests an association between news topics and toxic comments, this association has not sleepy eyes empirically established.

In their study, Zhang et al. Despite implicative evidence of the relationship between news topics and online hate, toxicity of the comments hc beer online news content has not been hc beer analyzed by news topic in previous research.

It is this research gap that we aim to address. We specifically investigate a concept that we refer to as online news toxicity, defined as toxic commenting taking place in relation to online news. Our aim is to analyze if different topics result in varying levels of toxic commenting. We address RQ1 by collecting a large dataset of YouTube news videos and all comments of those videos.

We then topically classify the stories using supervised machine learning, hc beer score each comment using a publicly available toxicity scoring service that has been trained using millions of social media comments. To address Hc beer, we conduct an in-depth qualitative analysis of the relationship between content type and toxicity. We conclude by discussing the implications for journalists and other stakeholders and outlining hc beer research directions.

The focus on the online news context is important for a variety of reasons. Second, understanding toxic responses to online news stories matters to many stakeholder groups within the media profession, including online news and media organizations, content producers, journalists and editors, who struggle to make sense of the impact of their stories on the wider stratosphere of social media. Third, in the era of mischievous strategies for getting hc beer attention, it is becoming increasingly difficult for news media to provide facts without seen as a manipulator or stakeholder in the debate itself.

In the present time, news channels cannot isolate themselves from the audience reactions, but analyzing these reactions is important to understand the various sources of digital bias and to hc beer an analytical relationship to the audience.

While inclusivity, accessibility and low barriers to entry have increased individual and citizen participation and the associated public debate on matters of social importance, toxic discussions show the cost of having low barriers or supervision for online participation.

Because everyone can participate, also the people with toxic views are participating. Because the Internet brings together people with different backgrounds and allows a space for people to interact that hc beer not normally interact with each other, an environment is created where contrasting hc beer and points of view are conflicting and colliding.

Furthermore, the echo chambers may result in group polarization, in which a previously held moderate belief (e. A fundamental question that scholars investigating online hate are asking is whether online environments lend themselves sui generis to provocative and harassing behavior. In a similar vein, Chatzakou et al. In hc beer, these previous findings support and stress the need for research on online toxicity.

Prior research has found that certain topics are more controversial than others hc beer Table 1). For example, Kittur et al. Although existing research on negative online behavior has implications for the research questions posed in Cystagon (Cysteamine Bitartrate)- FDA study, the relationship between online news topics and the toxicity of user comments has not been studied directly and systematically.

Several other studies have hc beer the relationship between topic and toxicity implicitly.

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