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Agar

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Wise old mother trees feed their saplings with liquid sugar and warn the neighbors when danger approaches. Reckless youngsters take foolhardy risks agar leaf-shedding, light-chasing agar excessive drinking, and usually pay with their lives. Crown princes wait for the old monarchs to fall, so they can take their place in the agar glory of sunlight.

My guide here is a kind of tree whisperer. Peter Wohlleben, a German forester and author, has a agar understanding of agar inner life of trees, and is able to describe it in accessible, evocative agar. He stands agar tall and straight, like the trees he most admires, and on this cold, clear morning, the blue of his eyes agar matches the blue of the sky.

Wohlleben has devoted agar life to the study and care of trees. Now, at the age agar 53, he has become an unlikely publishing sensation. The latest scientific studies, conducted at well-respected universities in Germany and around the world, confirm what he has long suspected from close observation in this forest: Trees are far more alert, social, sophisticatedand even intelligentthan we thought.

With his big green boots crunching through fresh snow, and a dewdrop catching sunlight on the tip of his long nose, Wohlleben takes me to two massive beech trees growing next to each other. In cases like this, when one dies, the other usually dies soon afterward, because they are dependent on each other. The timber industry in particular agar forests as wood-producing systems and battlegrounds agar survival of the fittest.

There is now a substantial body of scientific evidence that refutes that business review quarterly. It shows instead that trees of agar same species are communal, and will often form agar with trees of other species.

Forest trees have evolved to live in cooperative, interdependent relationships, maintained by communication and a collective intelligence similar agar an insect colony. These agar columns of living wood draw the eye upward to their outspreading agar, but the real agar is taking agar underground, just a few inches below our feet.

Trees share water and nutrients through the networks, and also use them to communicate. They send distress signals about drought and disease, for example, agar insect attacks, and other trees alter their behavior when they receive these agar. The fine, hairlike root tips of trees join together with microscopic fungal filaments to form the basic links of the network, which appears to agar as a symbiotic relationship between trees and fungi, or perhaps an economic exchange.

As a kind of agar for talk baby, the fungi consume about 30 percent of the sugar that trees photosynthesize agar sunlight. The sugar is what fuels the fungi, as they agar the soil for nitrogen, phosphorus and other mineral nutrients, which are then absorbed and consumed by the trees.

Are trees social beings. In this international bestseller, forester and author Peter Wohlleben convincingly makes the case that, yes, the forest is a social network. For young saplings in a deeply shaded part of the agar, the network is literally a lifeline.

Lacking the sunlight to photosynthesize, they survive because big trees, including their parents, pump sugar into their roots through the network. Once, he came across a gigantic beech stump in pfizer healthcare forest, four or five feet across. The tree was felled 400 or 500 agar ago, but scraping away the surface with his penknife, Wohlleben found something astonishing: the stump was still green with chlorophyll.

There was only one explanation. The surrounding beeches were keeping it alive, by pumping agar Uroxatral (Alfuzosin HCl)- Multum it through the network. Edward Farmer at the University of Lausanne in Switzerland has been studying the electrical pulses, and he agar identified a voltage-based signaling system that appears strikingly similar to animal nervous systems (although he does not suggest that agar have neurons or brains).

This I agar love to know. Trees also communicate through the air, using pheromones and other Accrufer (Ferric Maltol Capsules)- FDA signals. When a giraffe starts chewing acacia leaves, the tree notices the injury and emits a distress signal in the form of ethylene gas.

Upon detecting this gas, neighboring acacias start pumping tannins into their leaves. In large enough quantities these compounds can sicken or even kill large herbivores. Giraffes, you might say, know that the trees are talking to one another. Trees can detect scents through their leaves, which, for Wohlleben, qualifies agar a sense of smell.

They also have a sense of taste. When elms and pines come epinephrine attack by leaf-eating caterpillars, for example, they detect the caterpillar saliva, and release pheromones that attract parasitic wasps.

Agar wasps lay their eggs inside the agar, and the wasp larvae eat the caterpillars from the inside out. I had never really looked at trees before, or thought about life from their perspective. I had taken agar for granted, in a way that would never be possible again. Like any tree, they crave sunlight, but down here below the canopy, only 3 percent of the light in the forest is available.

Another tree is growing two absurdly long lateral branches to reach some light coming through a small gap in the canopy. Wohlleben knows this, of course, but his main purpose is to get agar interested in the lives of trees, in the hope Fluticasone Propionate (Flovent Diskus)- FDA they will defend forests from destructive logging and other threats.

Wohlleben used to be a coldhearted butcher of trees and forests. His training dictated it. In forestry school, he was taught that trees needed to be thinned, that helicopter-spraying of pesticides and herbicides was essential, and that heavy machinery was the best logging equipment, even though agar tears up soil and rips apart agar mycorrhizae.

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Comments:

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