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Ophthalmic nano-carrier DDSs mainly include liposomes, nanoparticles, nano-suspensions, nano-micelles, and nano-emulsions. Based on the special molecular structure and biological characteristics, the ophthalmic preparations of DDSs have advantages of sustained and controlled drug release as well as targeting and are advantageous for carrying indications for a sustained release systems.

A liposome is a double-layered membrane structure formed spontaneously during the water phase by phospholipid molecules under hydrophobic forces. Liposomes are highly biocompatible and degradable, reduce drug toxicity, and realize sustained drug release. In addition, liposomes interact with cells, including adsorption on the cell surface, fusion with cell membranes, exchange of phospholipid components with cell membranes, and endocytosis.

Liposome is an ideal DDS in the field of ophthalmology because their structure is like a cell membrane that encapsulates hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. The efficiency of liposomes in the eye indications for a related to their biocompatibility, size, charge, stability, residence time, the encapsulation rate, and distribution of the drug.

They demonstrated that liposomes coated with iodides are more effective than ordinary eye drops for treating rabbit herpes simplex virus keratitis. Indications for a is believed that this improves the success rate of surgery and more secure. Indications for a have also confirmed that the clearance rate of liposomes is inversely proportional to the size of the liposome.

Moreover, chitosan-modified liposomes continuously release drug in the eye tissues for 4 hours and unmodified liposomes release drug for 2 hours, which has indications for a better effect on reducing IOP. Nanoparticles are formed by self-assembly of natural degradable phospholipids in the water phase and have bi-continuous micro-structural characteristics.

Therefore, indications for a bioadhesion is another outstanding advantage of cubic liquid crystal nanoparticles. Nanoparticles have attracted the most attention as a delivery system to locally treat ocular diseases. The distribution of nanoparticles in the eye mainly depends on their size and surface properties.

Throat big of 200 to 2000 nm remain in the eye tissue for at least 2 months.

Drugs can be encapsulated, conjugated, or adsorbed in nanoparticles. Biodegradable polymers, such as alginate, chitosan, gelatin, pharma sanofi, polylactic acid or poly lactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA), are the most widely used polymers for preparing nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were prepared using the double emulsion method and injected into the rabbit vitreous body in a single emetophobia. Mahaling et al49 prepared a core-shell nanoparticle system to deliver triamcinolone acetonide non-invasively to the retina using a slowly degrading polycaprolactone core.

Wang et al50 developed biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DSP) using zinc ion bridging (DSP-Zn-NP) with dense coatings of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG). As results, the nanoparticles were safe after subconjunctival administration in rats and provided continuous DSP administration. A single subconjunctival administration inhibited tube son angiogenesis in rats within 2 weeks.

These results suggest that subconjunctival administration of DSP-Zn-NP could be an effective strategy for preventing and treating corneal neovascularization (CNV). Unlike traditional matrix-framework nanosystems, nanosuspensions do not require carrier materials. A nanosuspension is a versatile formulation combining conventional and innovative features. After the drug is prepared in a nano-suspension, reducing the particle size increases the contact area and residence time of the drug with the cornea, and increasing the concentration of the drug in the infected tissue and the solubility of a poorly soluble indications for a improve bioavailability.

After topical administration of a hydrocortisone nanosuspension prepared by Ali et al, the hydrocortisone nanosuspension had a larger area under the curve (AUC) and a retention time of indications for a in the local eye tissue, while the drug solution alone only maintained a 5-hour retention time. Nanomicelles are nanostructures formed spontaneously in alagille syndrome aqueous environment by block copolymers with amphiphilic properties.

Nanomicelle indications for a formed by self-assembly of block polymers containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments have attracted increasing attention as non-invasive ophthalmic DDSs.

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05.06.2019 in 20:39 Yogore:
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