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Furthermore, the architecture guarantees a signal-independent current drawn from the ADC references, which offers a critical advantage of minimizing cross-talk noise in an array with 1,120 ADCs. To gain a better conversion accuracy, several calibration techniques are applied to compensate for process mismatch. For example, several extra error-correction switch-capacitor stages are carefully added the ai journal the CDAC to mitigate the impact of comparator inaccuracy, trading for the ai journal ADC linearity and lower noise.

The digitized samples from every four ADCs are consumed by a digital processing block nominally operating at a 160-MHz system clock rate and are resynchronized to a parallel data bus with a multiplexing hub. Each channel is then heterodyned to baseband, low-pass filtered, and down-sampled to facilitate decimation for a data bandwidth reduction in the succeeding processing (40). A configurable elevational column summer adds the decimated data from the rows to beamform and further compress the data for storage and the ai journal. The SRAM can store and retrieve data for use with arithmetic logic unit operations and subsequent excitations.

The 1,120 ADCs on-chip can produce 448 Gbps of digitized ultrasound data and the 280 digital processing blocks provide an aggregate of over 1 trillion fixed-point operations per second.

The UoC probe contains the ai journal UoC board connected the ai journal both a main board and a power board with andrographolide battery. The main board contains a field equagesic gate array (FPGA) and coordinates with the other boards and a universal serial bus (USB) interface the ai journal the mobile device.

The FPGA provides low-latency deterministic communication directly to the UoC platform and facilitates communication over the USB connection to a host mobile device. This architecture maximizes the data rates and minimizes the ultrasound pulse repetition intervals, thus improving imaging capabilities. The FPGA sets configuration parameters, triggers acquisitions, and offloads and processes data streams (41). A sequence processing architecture and instruction set has been developed to coordinate imaging mode acquisition and processing (42).

A sequence compiler on the host (the mobile device) compiles high-level imaging mode parameters into UoC parameters and a sequence command executable abbvie p e be run on a sequence processing unit (SPU) on the FPGA.

The SPU coordinates a real-time timing sequencer to load UoC parameters, launch triggers, and offload and process ultrasound data. Additional processing is architecturally reconfigurable and includes beamforming, compounding, and synthetic aperture imaging capabilities (43). The UoC, FPGA, and mobile processing employ multistage delay-and-sum 2D and 3D beamforming useful for accommodating the different data rates at each stage (6). Coherent and noncoherent summation across the elements and different transmits are programmable between the UoC, the ai journal FPGA, and the mobile processor.

Additionally, multiple digital filter stages provide antialiasing, noise removal, frequency compounding, and log detection. Postprocessing blocks provide scan conversion, incoherent spatial compounding, edge preserving filters, persistence, and color-scale remapping. A mobile device application provides a touch-screen user interface to select preset modes and parameters for imaging that are compiled and communicated in real-time via the USB connection.

The mobile device processors provide additional back-end processing and visualization capabilities to the ultrasound data stream. Measurement and annotation tools help assess the ultrasound captures. The ai journal mobile platform provides a means to categorize and share data in the cloud. Further 3D rendering is done on the mobile platform, in the cloud, or on a local computer.

The UoC is designed to operate over a range of 1 to 10 MHz, achieving the bandwidth, the ai journal, and sensitivity to image across the body. The UoC has exceptional uniformity as measured across the array of 8,960 MEMS elements, where the SD of capacitance and gain is under 1 pF and 0. Distribution plots of the measured characterization can be found in SI Appendix, Fig. Notice that the frequency response between all the emulated probes corresponds to desired applications the ai journal imaging shallow (broadband), deep (low frequency), or deep with high pressure (low frequency with harmonics).

This is achieved by tuning the focus and waveforms using the digital transmit controller described above. For each of the probe configurations, the performance exceeds the resolution metrics set forth in the GB 10152-2009 standards and abides by the recommendations of the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (46). Universal probe acoustic verification measurements. The UoC probe is shown configured to operate in modes that have traditionally required three types of probes.

The columns have focused beam measurements (temporal, spectral, axial, and lateral) from a water tank using three builds of the UoC probe, where the rows cover the three major categories of probe configurations.

Broad probe versatility is a distinction of the integrated UoC. The traditional linear, curvilinear, and phased the ai journal probes needed for whole-body imaging can now be covered with a single ultrasound device.

Common imaging locations cover the expanse of the human body the ai journal illustrated in Fig. Structures in the neck, such as the airway, carotid, and thyroid, are optimized for shallow imaging with high-acoustic-frequency linear scanning. Superficial imaging of the arms, wrists, and varied joints is optimized by tuning with a dynamic aperture.

This also allows transmit steering for optimized needle visualization during common invasive procedures.

Abdominal imaging of kidneys, liver, bladder, or the pregnant uterus are configured for deep imaging with low acoustic frequencies for penetration and a wide field of the ai journal with msud for large cross-sectional area coverage.

Imaging the heart, a dynamic organ, requires engineering technology open access journal attention to pulse repetition intervals to ensure clarity and image quality. This is enhanced with harmonic imaging generating higher resolution and lower noise. Lung imaging for detecting pneumothorax (an abnormal collection of air in the pleural space between the lung and the chest wall) the ai journal multiple optimizations to see B-lines at depth and to visualize lung sliding in shallow regions (47).

Side-by-side image comparisons with predicate devices, spanning a representative set of indicated applications, have been evaluated by independent board-certified physicians the ai journal diagnostic equivalence (SI Appendix, Fig. Ultrasound imaging with the UoC. The vast flexibility incorporated into the UoC design required development forethought to enable state-of-the-art imaging modes, such as color and spectral Doppler, multiorgan, multiplane, and 3D imaging modes.

Demonstration of spectral Doppler in the carotid artery with caliper measurements of peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, and the time elapse (SI Appendix, Fig. For this data, the Dorian johnson platform was programmed to capture and process the 3D volume with a high fidelity at 1 volume per second.

Such flexibility enables this programmable UoC platform to be a tool for extending ultrasound research and development of future modes tailored to specific clinical studies.

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