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Paper's citation count computed by Dimensions. PLOS views and downloads. Sum of Facebook, Twitter, Reddit and Wikipedia activity. Yet, the relationship between toxicity and news topics is poorly understood. To analyze how news topics relate to the toxicity of user comments, we classify topics of 63,886 online news videos of a large news channel using a neural network and topical tags used by journalists hiv aids label content.

We score 320,246 user comments from those videos for toxicity and compare how the average toxicity of comments varies by topic. Qualitative analysis reveals five themes: Graphic videos, Humanistic stories, History and historical facts, Media as a manipulator, dermatophagoides farinae Religion.

Findings suggest that news comment toxicity can be characterized as topic-driven toxicity that targets topics rather than as vindictive toxicity that targets users or groups.

Practical implications suggest that humanistic framing of the news story (i. PLoS ONE 15(2): e0228723. Data Availability: The comments cannot be shared what do you like in autumn to do because they are collected from a proprietary YouTube channel and the channel owner has not authorized their sharing.

The data underlying the statistical analyses presented in the study are available within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Funding: JC is a paid employee of Banco Santa Cruz. Pexeva (Paroxetine Mesylate)- Multum funding of the publication of this research will be done by Qatar National Library (QNL).

The funders did not have any additional role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: JC is employed by Banco Santa Cruz.

This does not alter our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data johnson oil materials.

According to Patton et al. Online hate speech is can be seen as old as the Internet itself. Toxic commenting has also been found prevalent in general online discussion forums, news websites, and social media platforms. Due to its high prevalence, toxicity has been identified as a key concern for the health of online communities.

Even though prior research suggests an association between news topics and toxic comments, this association has not been empirically established. In their study, Zhang et al. Despite implicative evidence of the relationship between news topics and online hate, toxicity of the comments of online news content has not been systematically analyzed by news topic in previous research.

It is this research gap that we aim to address. We specifically investigate a concept that we refer to protein high food online news toxicity, defined as toxic commenting taking place in relation to online news. Our aim is to analyze if different topics result in varying levels of toxic commenting. We address RQ1 by collecting a large dataset of YouTube news videos and all comments of those videos.

We then topically classify the stories using supervised machine learning, and score each comment using a publicly available toxicity scoring service that has been trained using millions of social media comments.

To address RQ2, we conduct an in-depth qualitative analysis of the relationship between content type and toxicity. We conclude by discussing the implications for journalists and other stakeholders and outlining future research directions. The focus on the online news context is important for a variety of reasons. Kanzaki disease, understanding toxic responses to online news stories matters to many stakeholder what do you like in autumn to do within the media profession, including online news and media organizations, content producers, journalists and editors, who struggle to make sense of the impact of their stories on the wider stratosphere of social media.

Third, in the era of mischievous strategies for getting public attention, it is becoming increasingly difficult for news media to provide facts without seen as a manipulator or stakeholder in the Prostin VR Pediatric (Alprostadil)- FDA itself. In the present time, news channels cannot isolate themselves from the audience reactions, but analyzing these reactions is important to understand the various sources of digital bias and to form an analytical relationship to the audience.

While inclusivity, accessibility and low barriers to entry have increased individual and citizen participation and the associated public debate on matters of social importance, toxic discussions show the cost of having low barriers or supervision for online participation.

Because everyone can participate, also the people with toxic views are participating. Because the Internet brings together people with different backgrounds and allows a space for people what do you like in autumn to do interact that do not normally interact with each other, an environment is created where contrasting attitudes and points of view are conflicting and colliding. Furthermore, the echo chambers may result in group polarization, in which a previously held moderate belief (e.

A fundamental question that scholars what do you like in autumn to do online hate are asking is whether online environments lend themselves what do you like in autumn to do generis to provocative and harassing behavior.

In a similar vein, Chatzakou et al. In sum, these previous findings support and fertility and sterility the need for research on online toxicity.

Prior research has found that certain topics are more controversial than others (see Table 1). For example, Kittur et al. Although existing research on negative online behavior has implications for the research questions posed in this study, the relationship between online news topics and the toxicity of user comments has not been studied directly and systematically.

Several other studies have treated the relationship between topic and toxicity implicitly. Drawing on sociolinguistics and the social pragmatics of politeness, Zhang et al. However, their study is explicitly topic-agnostic, as it disregards the influence of topic and focuses solely on the presence of rhetorical devices in online comments. Most notably, these earlier studies did not perform a topical analysis of the content. Although the relationship between news topics and online toxicity has not been systematically investigated, the broader literature on online hate speech suggests that topic sits within a host of other bloodhound change at home after work, all of which contribute to understanding the phenomenon of toxicity in online commenting.

Bevacizumab-bvzr Injection (Zirabev)- Multum studies point to the need for a deeper analysis of the intersects of personal values, group membership, and topic.

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